Wednesday, October 1, 2008

V.Resolution 51 (1948) adopted by the Security Council at its 312th Meeting held on 3 June 1948



1. Reaffirms its resolutions 38 (1948) of 17 January, 39 (1948) of 20 January, and 47 (1948) of 21 April, 1948;

2. Directs the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan to proceed without delay to the areas of dispute with a view to accomplishing in priority the duties assigned to it by the resolution 47 (1948),

3. Directs the Commission further to study and report to the Security Council when it considers appropriate on the matters raised in the letter of Foreign Minister of Pakistan, dated 15th January, 1948, in the

order outlined in paragraph D of Council resolution 39 ( 1948).


*The Security Council voted on this Resolution on 3-6-1948 with the following result -

In favor: **Argentina **Belgium, **Canada, **Columbia, France, **Syria, U. K, and U.S.A

Against: none

Abstaining : China, Ukrainian S. S. R. and U. S . S. R.

** Non-permanent members of the Security Council

IV.Resolution 47 (1948) adopted by the Security Council at its 286th Meeting held on 21 April 1948



Having considered the complaint of the Government of India concerning the dispute over the State of Jammu and Kashmir, having heard the representative of India in support of that complaint and the reply and counter complaints of the representative of Pakistan,

Being strongly of opinion that the early restoration of peace and order in Jammu and Kashmir in essential and that India and Pakistan should do their utmost to bring about cessation of all fighting,

Noting with satisfaction that both India and Pakistan desire that the question of the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India or Pakistan would be decided through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite,

Considering that the continuation of the dispute is likely to endanger international peace and security,

Reaffirms its resolution 38 (1948) of 17 January 1948;

Resolves that the membership of the Commission established by its resolution 39 (1948) of 20 January 1948, shall be increased to five and shall include, in addition to the membership mentioned in that Resolution, representatives of ....and ..., and that if the membership of the commission has not been completed within ten days from the date of the adoption of this resolution the President of the Council may designate such other Member or Members of the United Nations as are required to complete the membership of five;

Instructs the Commission to proceed at once to the Indian sub-continent and there place its good offices and mediation at the disposal of the Governments of India and Pakistan with a view to facilitating the taking of the necessary measures, both with respect to the restoration peace and order and to the holding of a plebiscite by the two Governments, acting in co-operation with one another and with the Commission, and further instructs the Commission to keep the Council informed of the action taken under the resolution; and, to this end,

Recommends to the Governments of India and Pakistan the following measures as those which in the opinion of the Council and appropriate to bring about a cessation of the fighting and to create proper conditions for a free and impartial plebiscite to decide whether the State of Jammu and Kashmir is to accede to India or Pakistan.


1.The Government of Pakistan should undertake to use its best endeavors:

a.To secure the withdrawal from the State of Jammu and Kashmir of tribesmen and Pakistani nationals not normally resident therein who have entered the State for the purposes of fighting, and to prevent any intrusion into the State of such elements and any furnishing of material aid to those fighting in the State;

b.To make known to all concerned that the measures indicated in this and the following paragraphs provide full freedom to all subjects of the State, regardless of creed, caste, or party, to express their views and to vote on the question of the accession of the State, and that therefore they should co-operate in the maintenance of peace and order.

2.The Government of India should:

a.When it is established to the satisfaction of the Commission set up in accordance with the Council's Resolution 39 (1948) that the tribesmen are withdrawing and that arrangements for the cessation of the fighting have become effective, put into operation in consultation with the Commission a plan for withdrawing their own forces from Jammu and Kashmir and reducing them progressively to the minimum strength required for the support of the civil power in the maintenance of law and order;

b.Make known that the withdrawal is taking place in stages and announce the completion of each stage;

c.When the Indian forces shall have been reduced to the minimum strength mentioned in (a) above, arrange in consultation with the Commission for the stationing of the remaining forces to be carried out in accordance with the following principles:

i.That the presence of troops should not afford any intimidation or appearance of intimidation to the inhabitants of the State;

ii.That as small a number as possible should be retained in forward areas;

iii.That any reserve of troops which may be included in the total strength should be located within their present base area.

3.The Government of India should agree that until such time as the plebiscite administration referred to below finds it necessary to exercise the powers of direction and supervision over the State forces and policy provided for in paragraph 8, they will be held in areas to be agreed upon with the Plebiscite Administrator.

4.After the plan referred to in paragraph 2(a) above has been put into operation, personnel recruited locally in each district should so far as possible be utilized for the reestablishment and maintenance of law and order with due regard to protection of minorities, subject to such additional requirements as may be specified by the Plebiscite Administration referred to in paragraph 7.

5.If these local forces should be found to be inadequate, the Commission, subject to the agreement of both the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan, should arrange for the use of such forces of either Dominion as it deems effective for the purpose of pacification.


6.The Government of India should undertake to ensure that the Government of the State invite the major political groups to designate responsible representatives to share equitably and fully in the conduct of the administration at the ministerial level, while the plebiscite is being prepared and carried out.

7.The Government of India should undertake that there will be established in Jammu and Kashmir a Plebiscite Administration to hold a plebiscite as soon as possible on the question of the accession of the State to India or Pakistan.

8.The Government of India should undertake that there will be delegated by the State to the Plebiscite Administration such powers as the latter considers necessary for holding a fair and impartial plebiscite including, for that purpose only, the direction and supervision of the State forces and police.

9.The Government of India should at the request of the Plebiscite Administration, make available from the Indian forces such assistance as the Plebiscite Administration may require for the performance of its functions.

a.The Government of India should agree that a nominee of the Secretary-General of the United Nations will be appointed to be the Plebiscite Administrator.

b.The Plebiscite Administrator, acting as an officer of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, should have authority to nominate the assistants and other subordinates and to draft regulations governing the Plebiscite. Such nominees should be formally appointed and such draft regulations should be formally promulgated by the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

c.The Government of India should undertake that the Government of Jammu and Kashmir will appoint fully qualified persons nominated by the Plebiscite Administrator to act as special magistrates within the State judicial system to hear cases which in the opinion of the Plebiscite Administrator have a serious bearing on the preparation and the conduct of a free and impartial plebiscite.

d.The terms of service of the Administrator should form the subject of a separate negotiation between the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Government of India. The Administrator should fix the terms of service for his assistants and subordinates.

e.The Administrator should have the right to communicate directly, with the Government of the State and with the Commission of the Security Council and, through the Commission, with the Security Council, with the Governments of India and Pakistan and with their representatives with the Commission. It would be his duty to bring to the notice of any or all of the foregoing (as he in his discretion may decide) any circumstances arising which may tend, in his opinion, to interfere with the freedom of the Plebiscite.

11.The Government of India should undertake to prevent and to give full support to the Administrator and his staff in preventing any threat, coercion or intimidation, bribery or other undue influence on the voters in the plebiscite, and the government of India should publicly announce and should cause the Government of the State to announce this undertaking as an international obligation binding on all public authorities and officials in Jammu and Kashmir.

12.The Government of India should themselves and through the government of the State declare and make known that all subjects of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, regardless of creed, caste or party, will be safe and free in expressing their views and in voting on the question of the accession of the State and that there will be freedom of the Press, speech and assembly and freedom of travel in the State, including freedom of lawful entry and exit.

13.The Government of India should use and should ensure that the Government of the State also use their best endeavor to effect the withdrawal from the State of all Indian nationals other than those who are normally resident therein or who on or since l5th August 1947 have entered it for a lawful purpose.

14.The Government of India should ensure that the Government of the State releases all political prisoners and take all possible steps so that:

a.all citizens of the State who have left it on account of disturbances are invited and are free to return to their homes and to exercise their rights as such citizens;

b.there is no victimization;
c.minorities in all parts of the State are accorded adequate protection.

15.The Commission of the Security Council should at the end of the plebiscite certify to the Council whether the plebiscite has or has not been really free and impartial.


16.The Governments of India and Pakistan should each be invited to nominate a representative to be attached to the Commission for such assistance as it may require in the performance of its task.

17.The Commission should establish in Jammu and Kashmir such observers as it may require of any of the proceedings in pursuance of the measures indicated in the foregoing paragraphs.

18.The Security Council Commission should carry out the tasks assigned to it herein.


* The Security Council voted on this Resolution on 20-1-1948 with the following result:-

In favor: **Argentina, **Canada. China, France, **Syria, U. K, and U. S. A

Against: None

Abstaining: **Belgium, **Columbia, **Ukrainian S. S. R. . and U. S. S. R.

** Non-permanent Members of the Security Council.

III.Draft Resolution presented by the President of the Security Council and the Rapporteur on 6 February 1948



Having considered the claims and allegations of India and Pakistan expresses the conviction that a peaceful settlement of the dispute about the accession of Jammu and Kashmir will best promote the interests of the peoples of Jammu and Kashmir of India, and of Pakistan.

Considers that it is urgent and important to stop acts of violence and hostility in Jammu and Kashmir and to decide the question of whether the State of Jammu and Kashmir shall accede to Pakistan or to India by the democratic method of a plebiscite to be held, as recognized by the parties, under the auspices of the United Nations to ensure complete impartiality.

Believes that the joint action of the Governments of India and Pakistan is required to carry out the purposes setforth below:

Alternative A
Takes note with satisfaction that both Governments, in seeking a solution by negotiation under the auspices of the Council, have agreed to cooperate with each other and with the Council in developing specific proposals, and, to this end, to apply the following, principles which, in the opinion of the Council, should, among others, constitute the basis of a just settlement;

Alternative B

Appeals, therefore, to both parties, in seeking a solution by negotiation under the auspices of the Council, to cooperate with each other and with the Council in developing specific proposals and, to this end, to apply the following principles which, in the opinion of the Council, should, among others, constitute the basis of a just settlement;

Acts of violence and hostility must end.
The withdrawal and continued exclusion of all irregular forces and armed individuals who have entered Jammu and Kashmir from outside must be brought about, each party using to that end all the influence at its disposal.
Regular armed forces in aid of the establishment and maintenance of order must be made available. In this connection the Governments should seek to ensure cooperation between their military forces to establish order and security until the question of accession shall have been determined by the plebiscite.
Regular armed forces must be withdrawn as soon as reestablishment of law and order permits.
After acts of violence and hostility have ceased, all citizens of the Jammu and Kashmir State, who had left on account of the recent disturbances, shall be invited and be free to return to their homes and to exercise all their rights without any restrictions on legitimate political activity. There shall be no victimization. All political prisoners should be released.
The conditions necessary for a free and fair plebiscite on the question of whether the State of Jammu and Kashmir shall accede to India or to Pakistan, including an interim administration which will command confidence and respect of the people of the State of Jammu and Kashmir must be established.
Such conditions include that the plebiscite must be organized, held and supervised under the authority of the Security Council at the earliest possible date.


*This draft resolution was considered by the Security Council on 10th and 11th February, 1948, but was not put to vote. Subsequent]y, a Joint Draft Resolution was introduced by the Representatives of Belgium, Canada, China, Columbia, United Kingdom and the United States of America and its amended version (Doc. No S/726) was adopted by the Security Council on 21-4-1948, vide Resolution No 47 (I948).

II.Resolution 39 (1948) adopted by the Security Council at its 230th Meeting held on 20 January 1948



Considering that it may investigate any dispute or any situation which might, by its continuance, endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, and that, in the existing state of affairs between India and Pakistan, such an investigation is a matter of urgency,

Adopts the following resolution:

A Commission of the Security Council is hereby established, composed of representatives of three Members of the United Nations, one to be selected by India, one to be selected by Pakistan, and the third to be designated by the two so selected.Each representative on the Commission shall be entitled to select his alternates and assistants.

The Commission shall proceed to the spot as quickly as possible. It shall act under the authority of the Security Council and in accordance with the directions it may receive from it. It shall keep the Security Council currently informed of its activities and of the development of the situation. It shall report to the Security Council regularly, submitting its conclusions and proposals.

The Commission is invested with a dual function; (1) to investigate the facts pursuant to Article 34 of the Charter of the United Nations; (2) to exercise, without interrupting the work of the Security Council, any mediatory influence likely to smooth away difficulties, to carry out the directions given to it by the Security Council; and to report how far the advice and directions, if any, of the Security Council, have been carried out.

The Commission shall perform the functions described in Clause C: (1) in regard to the situation in Jammu and Kashmir State set out in the letter of the Representative of India addressed to the President of the Security Council, dated 1 January 1948, and in the letter from the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan addressed to the Secretary-General, dated 15 January 1948; and (2) in regard to other situations set out in the letter from the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan addressed to the Secretary-General, dated 15 January 1948, when the Security Council so directs.

The Commission shall take its decision by majority vote. It shall determine its own procedure. It may allocate among its members, alternate members, their assistants, and its personnel such duties as may have to be fulfilled for the realization of its mission and the reaching of its conclusions.

The Commission, its members, alternate members, their assistants, and its personnel, shall be entitled to journey separately or together, wherever the necessities of their task may require, and, in particular within those territories which are the theater of the events of which the Security Council is seized.

The Secretary-General shall furnish the Commission with such personnel and assistance as it may consider necessary.


*The Security Council voted on this Resolution on 20-1-1948 with the following result:

Infavour: **Argentina, **Belgium, **Canada, China, **Columbia, France, **Syria, U.K. and U.S.A

Against: None

Abstaining: Ukrainian S. S. R. and U. S. S. R.

**Non-Permanent Members of the Security Council.

Resolution 39 (1948) adopted by the Security Council at its 230th Meeting held on 20 January 1948



Considering that it may investigate any dispute or any situation which might, by its continuance, endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, and that, in the existing state of affairs between India and Pakistan, such an investigation is a matter of urgency,

Adopts the following resolution:

A Commission of the Security Council is hereby established, composed of representatives of three Members of the United Nations, one to be selected by India, one to be selected by Pakistan, and the third to be designated by the two so selected.Each representative on the Commission shall be entitled to select his alternates and assistants.

The Commission shall proceed to the spot as quickly as possible. It shall act under the authority of the Security Council and in accordance with the directions it may receive from it. It shall keep the Security Council currently informed of its activities and of the development of the situation. It shall report to the Security Council regularly, submitting its conclusions and proposals.

The Commission is invested with a dual function; (1) to investigate the facts pursuant to Article 34 of the Charter of the United Nations; (2) to exercise, without interrupting the work of the Security Council, any mediatory influence likely to smooth away difficulties, to carry out the directions given to it by the Security Council; and to report how far the advice and directions, if any, of the Security Council, have been carried out.

The Commission shall perform the functions described in Clause C: (1) in regard to the situation in Jammu and Kashmir State set out in the letter of the Representative of India addressed to the President of the Security Council, dated 1 January 1948, and in the letter from the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan addressed to the Secretary-General, dated 15 January 1948; and (2) in regard to other situations set out in the letter from the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Pakistan addressed to the Secretary-General, dated 15 January 1948, when the Security Council so directs.

The Commission shall take its decision by majority vote. It shall determine its own procedure. It may allocate among its members, alternate members, their assistants, and its personnel such duties as may have to be fulfilled for the realization of its mission and the reaching of its conclusions.

The Commission, its members, alternate members, their assistants, and its personnel, shall be entitled to journey separately or together, wherever the necessities of their task may require, and, in particular within those territories which are the theater of the events of which the Security Council is seized.

The Secretary-General shall furnish the Commission with such personnel and assistance as it may consider necessary.


*The Security Council voted on this Resolution on 20-1-1948 with the following result:

Infavour: **Argentina, **Belgium, **Canada, China, **Columbia, France, **Syria, U.K. and U.S.A

Against: None

Abstaining: Ukrainian S. S. R. and U. S. S. R.

**Non-Permanent Members of the Security Council.

KASHMIR IN UNITED NATIONS RESOLUTION I.Resolution 38 (1948) adopted by the Security Council at its 229th Meeting held on 17 January 1948



Having heard statements on the situation in Kashmir from the representatives of the Governments of India and Pakistan,

Recognizing the urgency of the situation,

Taking note of the telegram addressed on 6 January by its President to each of the parties and of their replies thereto; and in which they affirmed their intention to conform to the Charter of the United Nations.

Calls upon both the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan to take immediately all measures within their power (including public appeals to their people) calculated to improve the situation, and to refrain from making any statements and from doing or causing to be done or permitting any acts which might aggravate the situation;

Further requests each of those Governments to inform the Council immediately of any material change in the situation which occurs or appears to either of them to be about to occur while the matter is under consideration by the Council, and consult with the Council thereon.


*The Security Council voted on this Resolution on 17-1-48 with the following result:

Infavour: **Argentina, **Belgium, **Canada, China, **Columbia, France, **Syria, U.K and U.S.A.

Against: none

Abstaining: Ukrainian S.S.R. and U.S.S.R.

**Non-Permanent Members of the Security Council


“Our view which we have repeatedly made public is that the question of accession in any disputed territory or State must be decided in accordance with wishes of people and we adhere to this view.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU, (in telegram No. 402-Primin-2227 dated 27 October 1947 to Prime Minister of Pakistan repeating telegram addressed to Prime Minister of United Kingdom).

In regard to accession also, it has been made clear that this is subject to reference to people of State and their decision.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU, (in telegram No.413 dated 28 October 1947 addressed to Prime Minister of Pakistan).

“ …….the people of Kashmir would decide the question of accession. It is open to them to accede to either Dominion then.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU, (in telegram No.255 dated 31 October 1947 addressed to Prime Minister of Pakistan).

“Kashmir should decide question of accession by plebiscite or referendum under international auspices such as those of the United Nations.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU, (Letter No. 368-Primin dated 21 November 1947 to Prime Minister of Pakistan).

“We are anxious not to finalize anything in a moment of crisis and without the fullest opportunity to be given to the people of Kashmir to have their say. It is for them ultimately to decide.

“And let me make it clear that it has been our policy all along that where there is a dispute about the accession of a state to either Dominion, the accession must be made by the people of that state.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU, (Broadcast to the Nation: “All India Radio”: 2 November 1947).

“The issue in Kashmir is whether violence and naked force should decide the future or the will of the people.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU, (Statement in Indian Constituent Assembly; 25 November 1947).

“We have not opposed at any time an over-all plebiscite for the State as a whole…….” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU, (in telegram dated 16 August 1950 addressed to the U.N. Representative for India and Pakistan: S/1791 : Anne 1(B).

“The most feasible method of ascertaining the wishes of the people was by fair and impartial plebiscite.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU, (Joint press communique of the Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan issued in Delhi after their meeting on 20 August 1953).

“People seem to forget that Kashmir is not a commodity for sale or to be bartered. It has an individual existence and its people must be the final arbiters of their future.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU, (Report to the All-India Congress Committee, 6 July 1951; The Statesman, New Delhi, 9 July 1951).

“Kashmir is not a thing to be bandied about between India and Pakistan but it has a soul of its own and an individuality of its own. Nothing can be done without the goodwill and consent of the people of Kashmir.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU, (Statement in the Indian Parliament, 31 March 1955).

“We had given our pledge to the people of Kashmir, and subsequently to the United Nations; we stood by it and we stand by it today. Let the people of Kashmir decide.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU, (Statement in the Indian Parliament, 12 February 1951).

“We have taken the issue to the United Nations and given our word of honour for a peaceful solution. As a great nation, we cannot go back on it. We have left the question for final solution to the people of Kashmir and we are determined to abide by their decision.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (Amrita Bazar Patrika, Calcutta, 2 January 1952).

“If, after a proper plebiscite, the people of Kashmir said, ‘We do not want to be with India’, we are committed to accept that. We will accept it though it might pain us. We will not send any army against them. We will accept that, however hurt we might feel about it, we will change the Constitution, if necessary.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (Statement in the Indian Parliament, 26 June 1952).

“I want to stress that it is only the people of Kashmir who can decide the future of Kashmir. It is not that we have merely said that to the United Nations and to the people of Kashmir; it is our conviction and one that is borne out by the policy that we have pursued, not only in Kashmir but every where.

“I started with the presumption that it is for the people of Kashmir to decide their own future. We will not compel them. In that sense, the people of Kashmir are sovereign.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (Statement in Indian Parliament, 7 August 1952)

“The whole dispute about Kashmir is still before the United Nations. We cannot just decide things concerning Kashmir. We cannot pass a bill or issue an order concerning Kashmir or do whatever we want. JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (The Statesman, 1 May 1953)

“Leave the decision regarding the future of this State to the people of the State is not merely a promise to your Government but also to the people of Kashmir and to the world.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (In telegram No. 25 dated 31 October 1947 addressed to Prime Minister of Pakistan).

“In regard to accession also it has been made clear that this is subject to reference to people of State and their decision.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (In telegram No.413 dated 28 October 1947 addressed to Prime Minister of Pakistan).

“That Government of India and Pakistan should make a joint request to U.N.O. to undertake a plebiscite in Kashmir at the earliest possible date.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (In telegram No. Primin-304 dated 8 November 1947 addressed to Prime Minister of Pakistan).

“We have always right from the beginning accepted the idea of the Kashmir people deciding their fate by referendum or plebiscite………..”

“Ultimately, the final decision of settlement, which must come, has first of all to be made basically by the people of Kashmir…….” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU Statement at Press Conference in London, 16 January 1951, The Statesman, 18 January 1951).

“But so far as the Government of India are concerned, every assurance and international commitment in regard to Kashmir stands.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (Statement in the Indian Council of States; 18 May 1954).

Tuesday, August 26, 2008


The solution of Kashmir imbroglio is accessible provided all parties are committed to resolve the dispute. Both New Delhi and Islamabad have been doing a lot apparently in this regard but their efforts have not yielded concrete results.
The fact is quite clear both the countries dont want to solve this issue...coz of various reasons ...if india goes for right of self determination they'll definitely loose the kashmir...while on the other hand pakistan shows some interest at times especially during General Musharafs time but they also fear of loosing their part of kashmir...though they have a slight edge over india as people may opt for pakistan but india is definitely gonna loose if the right of self determination takes place ....the changes in the peoples choice majorly from IOK have been disastour for pakistan ...till very recently people of indian held kashmir were keen on joining pakistan...but now most of the people want and independent kashmir....fearing this both countries are playing clearly unfair game with the poor kashmiris ....on one hand pakistan encourages terrorism and keeps on sending foreign mercenaries ..just to keep this battle going so that they dont have to loose their share of the cake...and india time and again is involved in state terrorism killing innocents fake encounters ....fake infiltration bids...indian army and indian agencies are majorly involved in IED blasts and grenade throwing into busy streets....this act is purely by indian army as they want to present the struggle of freedom as global terrorism to international community...
The last few years have witnessed a tremendous improvement in the relationship between the two nations. However, when Kashmir, which is a bone of contention between India and Pakistan, comes for discussion the atmosphere of hope turns into despair and both the countries are unable to come to a joint agreement. Both the nations must know that the good relations will last long only when the made-complex issue of Kashmir is resolved, otherwise such Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) will turn out to be fruitless only.

India and Pakistan are so allergic to each other that they are not going to accept any solution proposed by either of the two. Musharraf's proposals of 'demilitarization' and 'self-rule' was turned down by India without considering them worthy of giving a serious thought. In such a hostile and hopeless situation, the solution of Kashmir crises looks very much elusive. It is very pathetic on part of the Indian leaders not to come up with any proposal. If they don't like the proposal put forth by Musharraf why they don't then come up with their own proposal? This clearly shows that india has never been sincere to the issue....the recent uprising has clearly shaken india when their own media . their intellectual class. their civil society has started condemning the role of india and indian forces in kashmir ...fearing this india has blocked media ...put a ban of sms services ...and indefinite curfew....moreover they are picking innocents and taking them to borders and killing them and indian media reports proudly about "one more infiltration bid foiled" or the same indian army some how kills couple of its own soldiers and blames pakistan for LOC and cease fire violation.....this shameful act is only to divert the attention of people and international community and media so that the voice of peaceful of protests does not reach anywhere .....
Thses steps come at a time when noted and award winning journalists have raised a voice for the solution of kashmir issue ....
when booker prize winner arudhati roy ...writes "india needs azaadi from kashmir as much kashmir needs azaadi from india"
when vir sanghvi writes " its time to think unthinkable"
when sagarika ghose highlights the issue in her article " chaos theory in hindu cosmos"
rashmi sehgal writes " i am an india and i apologise to the people of kashmir"
and lots more
when a poll conducted by cnn ibn show taht 59% of common indians say kashmir should be given AZAADI..
when prem shankar jha and mr iyer speaks about kashmir should be soved...and most importantly omer abdullah chairman of national conference and member parliment ...who clearly knows he and his father ex cm farooq abdullah is a big zero without new delhi's support who clearly..says people of kashmir want azaadi and it should be debated.....

The history bears testimony to the fact that India and Pakistan can't reach any solution and the measures they take are only to make an impression in the international stage that Kashmir is being 'seriously' discussed. In fact, both the countries are merely killing time and the status quo will mean that Kashmir crises will continue unabated. and they will carry on with their part of cake....

Pragmatically, there seems to be only one way out to put an end to nearly 60 years of mayhem in Kashmir: free and impartial plebiscite under the aegis of the United Nation as per the UN Resolution, with the inclusion of a third option, Independence, just to update the 'old' Resolution. [ Though i am lil afraid here as UN is more of US than UN]Let the people of Kashmir decide about their future. The UN Resolution can peacefully and permanently solve the Kashmir dispute. After all, it was responsible to permanently solve the dispute in South Africa and Angola. Ironically, one of the so called largest democracies in the world, India, has refrained from granting the right of self-determination to the people of Kashmir, which happens to be their democratic right. [here i wud like to add this largest democracy is nothing but something like this: since the form of government in india is so called democratic its believed to be democratic...and largest prefix is only b'coz of its larger population]to know the facts about this largest demon-crazy ppl shud actually ask people of kashmir...north-east...naxal hit areas ...minorities in gujrat ..orrisa...meerut...uttar pardesh..mumbai...and moist hit areas....and further more this demon-crazy gets exposed when you come across hindu fanatic orgonisations like VHP-RSS-BAJRANG DAL-SHIV SENA and hundreds more ...they can destroy babri masjid and kill people..they can go on rampange and kill more than 3000 muslims in gujrat...they can set ablaze a christian missionary in orrisa along with his 2 kids ....and just the other day they burned a nun alive and set an orphange on fire in orrisa...and millions of similar incidents yet they wont be banned or labbeled terrorist orgonisations..and this sickular and demon-crazy country will award and reward these orgonisations for their social work..JAI SICKULARISM
The referendum should be held in two different phases:

Phase one: Independence or Union

Phase two: Union with India or Pakistan

(The second phase will come in effect only when the majority of the Kashmir population vote against Independence in the first phase).
Here are various measures which need to be taken to ensure free and impartial plebiscite:

i) Complete cease-fire: The two countries should announce the complete cease-fire along the Line of Control (LOC) to ensure that there is no untoward incident

ii) Demilitarization: After the cease-fire is ensured, India should call back its troops from Indian Administered Kashmir (IAK) and, simultaneously, Pakistan, too, should follow the suit by calling back its troops from Pakistan Adminis-tered Kashmir (PAK).

the borders with china can be collectively take care off for time being...

iii)The observers of the United Nation should remain in Kashmir and should keep a close vigil on the scheme of things, and when the situation becomes conducive, the observers should go for referendum. Since, people of Kashmir do not want the solution of Kashmir on ethnic or religious basis, therefore, the Pandits who left Kashmir in one of the most unfortunate incident in the history of Kashmir should be called back as an integral part of Kashmir's culture and identity, they too would decide the future of Kashmir along with their Muslim brethren....
after lengthy discussons on internet and person to person....lots of people have asked me questions like how will kashmir survive independently......... Kashmir can survive as an independent entity. If the people of Kashmir decide to be Independent, both India and Pakistan have to guarantee its Independence. For a start, Kashmir would not have its own currency but the currency of both India and Pakistan would be accepted as legal tender money. Kashmir, as an independent state, would have a free trade with both India and Pakistan and both the countries would invest in its economy. It is an admitted fact that only fruit and tourism industry, if properly managed, are enough to keep the economy of Kashmir afloat. however kashmir can further more develo its power sector,agriculture,floriculture,sericulture,horticultre,arts and crafts ..etc and further more education sector and medical sector once there is economic annd political stablity at its best...since the conditions and climate is very favourable for the last two sectors mentioned...
REGARDING the safety of borders both the countries can collectively take care of independent kashmir borders along with a newly formed kashmir army.till the we form our won strong army..since they've been crushing us for six decades now..this is the time when they can act as our elder brothers and it will help in reducing the level of haterd

However, the onus is on the United Nation to finally show its existence and play the role to resolve the Kashmir dispute. In the world of globalization no country would like to be engaged in war or constant dispute. Similar is the case with India and Pakistan.

Sunday, August 24, 2008


whenever i think of two nation theory ...i just fail to understand...why shud kashmir be merged with pak or india after self determination.......why was this self determination funda applied ....ofcorse it was the need of the hour.....but somehow i fail to understand how can any one advocate for the merger especially to pakistan....which i some how still cant accept as a nation......pakistan is just a geographical location which was given to muslims at the time of ugly partition of india in 1947.......
is pakistan a nation?
whats the history of pakistan? do they have a rich history?
while on other hand kashmir [POK+IOK+POGB+AKSAI CHIN] has a rich history of more than 5000 years ......the pre partition kashmir as a nation consists of multi cultures ..multi ethnicities....multi religious...and multi lingual and most importantly....a secular nation....apart from the pandit exodus ....for which i've given my reasons in teh below post....ii feel we teh combined parts of kashmir region can simply rock as a nation....our dtrategic location.....our accessiblity to central asia and china...and what not?

Identity and acknowledgment are important to all human beings, e Identity plays a crucial role in peoples lives and has immense value. Identity matters in social, political and economic contexts, and determine our roles as to who we are and how we relate to other people in society and in the world at large.

Identity could be of two kinds: individual and collective; and both of these are very important. As an individual one can have identity as a male or female. One can also have identity as a writer, teacher, student, actor, engineer, labourer etc. Apart from that one can also have collective identity, for example, being a member of a tribe, ethnic group, region, nation, religion, group etc.

identity for the Kashmiri people, of course, I mean collective identity. In Kashmir (State of Jammu and Kashmir) And when we Kashmiri nationalists promote Kashmiri identity as a separate nation we tend to annoy powerful and aggressive forces which one way or the other control and determine our future.
the topic kashmiriyat
and all these topics are pro people and are highlighted to promote the Kashmiri interest. And by promoting the Kashmiri interest if I annoy some people its price worth paying; and it also means what I write is noticed somewhere. Furthermore it indicates that I am on the right track, and I should not change my course just because of opposition of some people with vested interest.
Identity, in view of some scholars, is self awareness, which means explicit understanding that one exists as a separate being; but at the same time having collective identity- being part of a group, tribe or a nation. The term ‘identity negotiation’ explains about a process in which individuals negotiate the meaning of their identity and their place in a society. Psychologists generally use the notion of identity to describe ‘personal identity’, but Sociologists on the other hand use the term to describe ‘social identity’ to describe group membership....

this identity crisis ..concept struck me lots of times when i was chatting on internet as generaly ppl ask ASL....which means age sex location.......age and sex never created any confusions in my mind....but location always ......i always use to think twice before writing about my place ....what shud i write ? india or kashmir?and most of the times i got hurt while opening an email account....or filling a form on internet ...i cudnt find my nation kashmir in teh country list....adding salt to this chaos...are my friends and family members who work and live in different parts of world....when ever i discuss with them ..they'll always say kashmiris are reffered to as indians or it in britian...america or elsewhere ....

one of my british friends once said it is important that we are recognised as a separate ethnic group that we become visible in Britain. At present we are taken as Pakistanis (or Indians in case of a few hundred families who have come from the Indian side of Kashmir). He says Britain’s Kashmiri Community mainly come from Mirpur, Kotli and Bhimber districts of Azad Kashmir, and predominantly lives in deprived urban areas. It is not a political issue and we don’t want to cause any political rifts. We don’t want our campaign to become part of unprincipled politics of South Asia. To us it is an issue of equality. We want to be treated equally that we can also benefit from the state system. Kashmir National Identity Campaign is spearheading this movement, and in this noble cause some Pakistanis and Indians who believe in equality, and feel that Kashmiris should be recognised as a separate ethnic group support us.
bcoz of this opression from both pakistan and india and identity crisis
We Kashmiris are under achievers in education, employment and business; and over represented in criminal system. local governments serve the local people, and their policies in employment and housing should reflect this reality, but because we are not recognised as a separate ethnic group there are no such provisions for us, and jobs and other resources are taken up by other communities.

our struggle is for national identity of Kashmiris. We want people of Kashmir to be recognised as a separate nation- different from India and Pakistan. Our primary responsibility is to safeguard and promote Kashmiri interest; and if Kashmiris are recognised as a separate group then we can also benefit like other communities settled in Britain’america , europe etc....

all Kashmiris should start and support a campaign, as it will bring us, social, economic and political advantages.

in current scenerio when whole of mulke kashmir of yesteryears is divided on religious grounds......i dont know how we can achieve it....the hindus and sikhs of kashmir are com-pletely in favour of accessio to inida..and some muslims are in favour of accession to pak......ladakhis again divided on religious grounds again.......

where did we go wrong ?is the dream of mulke kashmeer over our movement for a free kashmir only for few parts of muslim dominated kashmir......y cant majority of non muslims of kashmir relate emotions to kashmir the way they relate to india? i dont know whom to blame and whom not to.....but all i can say is due to our selfishness carelessness...cowardness...double standards......etc we have lost our nation and identity..........



To draft guiding principles for is necessary.
Every person in its indiviual capacity or in capacity of a member of any social group always has got a broader outline for his future which unifies his thoughts and actions for achievement of hi/her set goals.Certainly it is upto Almighty Allah to whether such plans get executed or not but this thought should not deter any moslim by not planning.In todays environment it has become essential for sensitive and intellectual class of society to put their heads together and formulate a concept around which our thoughts and actions should revolve.

leader....hmm leme think ........oops no one.... we need a leader like gandhi....we need a leader who leads from the front......
no compultion for the leader to get us freedom...
but his main contribution shud be ............... to unite bring the concept of nationalism and patriotism in us..........

p.s gandhi's main contribution in the freedom struggle was was unity and nationalism...

so do we have some one like him.......nopes

now what to do...........

well look for the better one in the present lot....
Need of leader
The leaders in a social group are assets of that group.However leaders are not recruited but they are churned out of struggles and need vast experience they can be illiterate/literate but they have grip on their followers and have a goal in front of them.
Leaders dream for their followers and they try to turn their dreams into realities by fullfilling their responsiblities.Leaders are not carried away by the timely tides but remain firm on their ground despite storms.In short politician follow emmotions of its vote bank while as statesman makes people to follow his ideas and concept.



majority infact absolute majority are in favour of independent kashmir...i know the only problem with the movement is it was hijacked by pakistanis only to save POK....coz the movement or this freedom struggle which we are fighting today was actually started in POK against pakistan.and india ...somehow pakistan managed to blackmail ppl out there and called it a islamic movement.....the very movement kashmir struggle started it was hijacked by pro-pak militants.....but POK stopped at this point as pakistan promised them let IOK get independant v will leave POK also....this movement was actually not to support kashmir cause but to keep us busy and occupied that there was no uprising in POK.....pak wanted to save thet part of kashmir .... km's were always pro paki and kp's pro india ....[again a diff arguement but lets not get into that] since we were occupied in 1947 we started developing hatered against our occupier i.e india and pOK ppl against their occupier i.e pakistan....the solgans of jeeve jeeve and kashmir banega pakistan has been the most harmful to our movement....when the local militancy was brought to zero level pak started sending mercenaries ...till that time also km's thought these mercenaries come to save them ...they are still not aware that they were actually sent to keep kashmir labelled as terrorist org.....somehow these mercenaries stuff also got over by very few militants were present in valley....ours got a complete political and peoples movement ......couples of years were peaceful ..and all of a sudden army and indian agencies started massive fake encounters and fake infiltartion killings and IED diffusing and grenade throwing.....this is the time when the actual haterd against india....hatered was there earlier also...but this time people were taken by a surprise that with no militant activities in kashmir...what the hell is GOI upto....

the ppl of kashmir thought they are killing us coz we are muslims ...while as the fact is we were being killed coz they wanted to present it to world that so called terrorism is stil there in kashmir.....
by this our cause of independence ....was looked at as so called islamic terrorism...

and the common man is yet to realise this ....he happily dances and claps on the tunes of jeeve jeeve pakistan.... and kashmir banega pakistan....india also wants us to chant these slogans though they may not like it ...but it gives them a reason as pakisstan is not seen as a favourable country by international communities...

the killing of pandits was the one of the first moves of pak....and they only spread this rumour it was jagmohan ......i cannot buy that shit.....if some one here says jagmohan was responsible for pandith exodus ....does he mean to say pandits left coz of jagmohan and leter they got killed when they were physically not present in valley.....
all these orgonisations huji.. Let..etc were not present in valley...till mid 90's all militants were locals ..and some pak army men...who were introduced in kashmir as afghaan mujahideen who fought against ussr...all these pak based outfits came into picture later ...pandits were killed by local hijacked muslim militants ......though i wud not like to add muslim name with them...coz as far as my knowledge and understanding of religion goes muslim can kill anybody ....unless he is fighting holy war...jehad....unfortunately in the battle of interpretation and coz of very less knowledge about islam it became jihad ...though at individual level it was jihad for some and rightly so.....
about pandit exodus......

you may disagree.....and you have evry right to....let me put it this way.....
pre 1987.....pandits and muslims have been living happily till 1987 ...though i dont know and have never heard but may be any small incident communal clash might have happened.....both the communities lived like brothers and like one family......pandits and muslim families were well mixed...compared to sikhs and muslims ...and in present day also sikhs and muslim families just say hi to each other and thats of the reason can be aurangzeb - guru teg bahadur - guru gobind singh etc.....letme not get into that.....
coming back 2 pandit like brothers as compared to hindu muslims in india ....but there was a typical "ranjish"or "khalish" between the two communities which had following reasons...
1.during muslim rulers ..pandits were not treated well..
2.during dogra and sikh rukers muslims were not treated well
3. kp's liking india and km's pak...
in 87-88 when ziaul haque then president of pakistan got killed ...muslims got violent .and protests started ..there were lil communal clashes as well more over these slogans became common....yaha kya chalega nizame mustafa ....jeeve jeeve pakistan...zialhaque ka kya paigaam ...kashmir banega pakistan......this was one of the most prominent turning points in both communities lives.....these slogans were their in kashmir earlier also ...but were used by only one political party of that time jamaate islami for their own political gains...and few more slogans were also there which clearly hurted pandit sentiments......

pandits started distancing themselves but pretended as if everything is fine.....coz of 2 reasons ....kashmiriyat which was still alive in both communities....and since they were in minority .....when uprising started and the culture of gun and violence started in kashmir...pandits didnt believe it actually.....they could by no means understand what was happening as their neighbours muslim's son ..tinku or pinku who was brought up in this pandith family ...who use to play with pandith children always ..who was taught by pandith teachers ....had a gun in his hand and shouting "bato rostai batniyo saan assi banao pakistan" and rest of the slogans ......

now let me come to y pandiths were targetted and not sikhs .....for following reasons
1.sikh's muslims were in just hello hi terms ...moreover sikhs were not an educated or intellectual class who cud've influenced muslims .sikhs were majorly in transport and logistics business...i'll come to logic of this next point
2. since pandiths and muslims were living in great relations ...inspite of that old muslim ruler-dogra ruler ranjish....majority of pandiths were highly educated ...very intellegent...and intellectuals.......muslims every now and then used to discuss problems with pandits ..coz of intellegent genes.......
3.pak ordered the killings of pandiths for 2 reasons .....had the militancy been started without pandiths killings and their exodus ....pandiths wud've definitely convinced muslims to give up and make their careers.....the second most important thing was if pandiths wud not have been able to convince muslims to give up movement at least pandit wud definitely convert into a much stronger political movement...coz of their intellegence and high influence over muslims i forgot to mention muslims were not majorly into education.....they were happy with zamindaari...thekedaari...dukaan daari and darba daari ...haha ...but its a fact... which wud've meant cyanide for their first major move was to get pandit out of valley.... [here by no means i say pandit will support azaadi movement...but had there been no killing and exodus ...they'weu've definitely gone in favour of no other option wud ve been avialable] and pandits fled.....and this fact very less pandits & muslims of valley have realised till now.....

in 1994-95 pandiths from baramulla returned ...and were kept in district police lines baramulla....since police lines baramulla is in high security zone .....pandits started roaming freely....within this cannt area after noon at around 5 P.M while a pandit was returning from a nearby market after some shopping....he was shot in leg ...a young boy of 23-24 types age ....shot him......this was the time when there was very lil militancy in valley local militants were almost arrested killed or had surrendered......a militant coming in such high security zone and shooting the pandith at a point blank range that too just in front of district police lines ...which has RT brigade ...and MP check post on its right ...joint interrogation center and G camp on its left ....may be this mission was top priority.....the pandits comig back at this point might have resulted in either political m0vement or complete accession to india....

moreover after pandiths fled so many rumours were spread by agents in valley against kp's ....and the common man actually believed them.....
these rumours actually kept pandits and muslims apart for a longer period....and after long gap ...the new generation from both sides is either kp or km who is wrong and km's were used and by hitting on kp's the actual loosers were and are km's and kp's as well
1..they lost their brothers ..
2.paradise turned into hell..
3...had pandits not fled we wud've been living happily ...with india or independent is immaterial here
this conclusion is not based on a perticular incident ..may be some of the pandits were informers or working with IB were some muslims ...

Friday, August 22, 2008


Up to 1325: Ruled by 155 Rajas independent and sovereign 1325 to 1585: Muslim Sultans independent and sovereign (1420 to 1470) "Golden period of Kashmir history" Periods of Occupation and Struggle for Freedom
1586 to 1752: Mughal Rule
1752 to 1819: Tyrannical Afghan Rule
1819 to 1846: Colonized by Sikhs
16 March 1846: British sold Kashmir to Dogras
1846 to 1947: Dogra Rule
15 August 1947: Partition of British India Indo-Pak war to gain control over the territory of Kashmir
22 Oct.1947 : Tribal-backed Invasion of Kashmir
24 Oct. 1947: Pakistan controls one third of Kashmir - Provisional Govt. of Azad Kashmir proclaimed
27 Oct. 1947: Indian military invasion in Kashmir- two thirds of Kashmir occupied by India
Indo-Pak War: Cease-fire achieved 1 Jan, 1949

'Kashmir' denotes the whole state of Jammu & Kashmir as it existed before October 1947. Millions of years back enormous tidal waves arose from the Indian ocean and layer after layer of silt and rock deposited to make the Himalayan range of mountains. The rock formations seen today confirm this theory.

These waves brought water with them. The receding waters left infertile foothills and the shelving shores of inland sea, the lakes of Kashmir today . Kashmir was an expanse of water and the first people who ever lived had homes in water, and indeed some still do ! Islands of land surfaced in time and people migrated . Theories have been postulated to explain this evolution. A massive volcanic eruption made a crater in the mountains and drained the water. Earthquakes in Kashmir are common and the bye-products like ash from lava is present in mountains. Kashmir could have been a mighty glacier in ice-age and earthquake split open a gorge , ice melted and drained away
In Hindu mythology the big lake (Satisar) was inhabited by Nagas (Snake people) who fearing the demon (Jaladeo) pray to Kashyap (The sage). The sage goes into long penance to deliver the Nagas. Shiva (Hindu God) came down and with a hard blow created a crater in the mountains and drained the water away to surface land on which people started living. There is also a legendary story about King Solomon using ingenious canalization methods , drained the waters, using human labor. Whatever it was which created Kashmir it has since been awfully serpentine, ruefully demonic and the natives suffered gusty blows from the mighty waves of mordant politics

Jehlum river , the hydaspes formed the Eastern limit of advances for Alexandra the great of Macedonia. He left behind a gene- pool of a big continent of his army. The God King, ferocious fighter died in Babylon at 36 in 323 BC. The fair color of Kashmiri skin may be attributed to that invasion.

3rd century BC Ashoka (296-232 BC) the grandson of Chandra Gupta, the Mauryan King made Srinagar the capital of his huge empire. The Buddhists ruled up to 8th century and left their culture and monasteries, especially in Ladakh.
Huns gained control in sixth century. Mihira Kula, a Hun prince was known as cruel as death for his cruel behavior. The Ujjan empire took control in 530 AD. The Hindu king Lalitya Dityas' rule ( 724-761) marked an era of literature and learning. Kashmir as his base he led his armies deep into South India, Turkistan and Tibet. He built temples at Martand , Avantipor and Pandrethan which still remain. He set an example for Kashmir as an independent country.

King Unmattavati 939-944 AD was inauspicious. He ripped the abdomen of the pregnant women to see the fetus, plunged daggers in the hollows between the breasts of naked women. The saga of repression continued during the time of King Harisha 1089-1101 AD.
Pundit Kalhane the great poet of the 12th century wrote Rajatarangi (River of Kings). He wrote "Kashmir may be conquered by force of spiritual merit but never by force of soldiers" which, in present political climate may be worth remembering. The spate of literal tranquility was short lived , ferocious tartars ( 1300-1320AD) Zulfi Khan from Changis Khan family invaded and indulged in ruthless killing, loot and arson. He perished in a blizzard crossing the Devasar pass. Simha Deva and his associate Ram Chand ruled for a while but soon Prince Rinchen took over having killed Ram Chand and married his daughter, Kuta Rani. Rinchen converted to Islam and called himself Sultan sadru-ud-din and built the great Jama Masjid and Ziyarat for Bulbul shah who was his mentor. Rinchen died and Simbha Deva's brother Udayadeva married the widow Kuta Rani and ruled for 50 days. Shah Mir a Muslim from swat and adviser to Rinchen was waiting in the wings and took over the throne. This heralded the ' Sultan dynasty' which lasted 200 years
In 1372 Shah Hamadan arrived from central Asia with thousands of followers and spread his message of Islam. People were converted to his faith enmasse.. In the meantime Shah Mir died and the throne was inherited by Sultan Skinder in 1389 who ruled for 24 years and destroyed idols and sacred thread (500 lbs) of the converted Hindus . The fifty years rule of Zainul Abidin (Budsha) which followed is known as the golden era in the history of Kashmir He invited artists from Iran and handicrafts boomed. His rule has been remarkable in progress, prosperity and justice. His rule extended to Tibet and Punjab. He built a palace in the island called Zainlank also made by him and inscribed on the edifice 'May this edifice be as firm as the foundation of the heavens' He married into a Hindu Raja family from Jammu.. His two sons fought with each other after his death in 1470 and lost the throne to Chak family , waiting in the wings.
Yousuf Shah Chak and his wife Haba Khatoon were ruling when Akbar the Mughul Emperor beguiled him and entered Kashmir on June 5, 1586 to rule for the next 166 years. Jehangir inherited the throne and became obsessed with the beauty of Kashmir. He and his wife Nur Jehan built 777 gardens and panted Chinar trees. On his death in 1627 he uttered 'Kashmir only Kashmir'.

Shah Jehan stepped in after his father Jehangir and also built places like Chashma Shahi and his sons Murad married to a Kashmiri girl built the Island called Char Chinar. His eldest son dara Shikoh built Pari Mahal and Greystone mask still standing today. It was Aurangzeb who got the throne having beheaded Dara. In 1664 Dec Aurangzeb set off from Delhi for Kashmir , accompanied by his sister Roshan Ara. 100,000 horsemen, camels, elephants and cattle. He lost most of his livestock in the mountains. The Mughal era came to an end with the ferocious invasion of Persian leader Nadir Shah in 1739. He took the peacock throne and Kohinoor and left the Mughals in disarray
It was the Afghans who saw an opportunity and invaded Kashmir. Ahmad Shah Abdali ruled in a ruthless manner, he ordered public executions and people drowned in the Jehlem river. Afghans built Amira Kadal, Hari Parbat forte. One ruler 18 year old Azad Khan plundered , killed and raped like a lunatic. He slit the stomach of his doctor for not curing his eye ailment. Abdali died in Kabul in 1818 , the sons fought and lost Kashmir to Sikhs. It was like coming out of the frying pan into the fire !

The Sikhs were invited by locals to get rid of the Afghans but the 27 years rule from Sikhs was a hell . People were stoned to death for killing a cow. A despotic rule which led to pestilence, destitution followed unfortunately by earthquakes and famine of 1832. Ranjit Singh the ruler never visited Kashmir but wanted , taxes, shawls and women. Gulab Singh a dogra commander won his favor by fighting the British. He was awarded Jammu as Jagir

It was Gulab Singh who conquered Ladakh and Dardistan in 1840. Poonch remained with his brother Dyan Singh. Gulab Singh betrayed his old master and helped the British to defeat Ranjit Singh. British demanded a heavy fine to relinquish Kashmir. Gulab Singh offered to pay and Kashmir was sold to him for Rs 75,000, one horse , 12 goats and three shawls. One shawl and 100 goats also to be given every year otherwise Kashmir would revert back to the British.. This became the famous Treaty of Amritsar.

Gulab Sigh consolidated power and Dogra rule of a complete century was heralded. 1857 Rambir Singh took over and helped British retake Delhi after a mutiny. His repressive rule lasted for 28 years and was succeeded by Major General Partap Singh. Partap Singh was dominated by British and he allowed a resident and a revenue commissioner Walter Lawrence was installed. This was a great relief for Kashmiris, because inhuman laws like 'Beggar' or forced free labor and execution for cow slaughter was abolished. In 1889 the British took over direct rule for sixteen years , giving a breathing time of relief for Kashmiris from repressive Dogra rule. Soon enough Maharaja was reinstalled in 1905 and saga of autocratic despotic rule continued. Hari Singh was the nephew ( Partap Sigh had no son) born and educated in Paris. He became the westernized Maharaja of Kashmir. Polo. golf, house -boats and trout fishing became the norm in Kashmir. British missionaries like Arthur Neve, Cecil Tyndale Biscoe, Miss Mellinson became the pioneers of development and education in Kashmir.
Srinagar Silk Weaving factory strike in 1924 when Said-ud-din Shawl and Noor Shah Naqshbandi were expelled was an important landmark for the political renascence of Kashmir. They submitted a petition to Lord Reading the viceroy of India with their grievances . On 13 July 1931 nine people were gunned down in front of central jail who were protesting against a Jammu policeman desecrating Quran. This became the 'Martyrs Day' A school teacher Shiekh Abdulla formed the 'Muslim Conference' which he later converted to National Conference to include the non-muslims in the party. Several thousand people got killed by Dogra army. The British set up the Glancy commission to investigate. Maharaja caved in and passed the constituent assembly act. Now 35 out of 70 seats would be elected. Muslim conference still active in Jammu under Choudry Abbas got 14 seats. The 'Quit Kashmir' movement launched by Abdulla took off like wild fire. Repression intensified. "Srinagar has been transformed into a graveyard" stated Nehru " I must go there" He was greeted with black flags by Pandits and arrested.

1947 sorting partition of India out Lord Mountbatten called a meeting of the party leaders on June 13, 47. Mr. Nehru said that no state can claim independence, but Mr. Jinnah said 'that constitutionally and legally the Indian states will be independent sovereign states on the termination of paramountcy and they will be free to decide for themselves to adopt any course they like. They can decide to remain independent. In the later case they enter into agreements and relationships, such as economic or commercial, with Hindustan or Pakistan as they may choose'
Maharaja and his Prime Minister Ram Chand Kak wanted independent Kashmir. A stand still agreement was signed with India and Pakistan. A trade agreement with Pakistan meant oil, salt could be imported and communication link kept open. Sudhans in Poonch revolted and got slaughtered by state forces. On 22 October Tribals from Waziristan invaded plunging Kashmir in darkness. They were only a few miles from capturing the capital city when Maharaja fleeing for life allegedly accepted provisional accession to India, in return for safety of his life. Indian army was flown in on 27th October and a war ensued between india and Pakistan. This resulted in partition of the state and 50 years on it still remains split and divided. The accession document signed by Lord Mountbatten states that the accession is probationary and subject to a plebiscite confirming his action. It is this plebiscite that people were promised that has now caused over 85,000 deaths of Kashmiris.

United Nations got involved. Jan, 24, 1948 Mr. Warren Austen of USA suggested an interim government followed by a plebiscite. Jan 1951 Australian PM , Mr. R G Menzies proposed stationing commonwealth troops or Indo Pakistan joint force or raise a local army in Kashmir It was rejected by India. United Nations or two deadly wars did not alter the status defacto position of Kashmir dispute nor did the Nehru-Abdulla agreement of July 24, 1952 Abdulla , the serving prime minister was arrested and jailed. The reasons for this action are elaborated ( 15 points )

September,4 ,1965 UN resolution stopped the Indo-Pakistani war, culminated in the Tashkent Declaration of Jan, 10, 1966. POW's were exchanged , but Kashmir was left simmering in the smoldering fire. One more Indo-Pakistani war erupted, this time in East Pakistan and culminated in the Simla agreement of July ,3,1972. Again after exchange of POW's Kashmir was left to be discussed later , in order to arrive at an amicable solution
As time passed people eg Shastri, Ayub Khan , Nehru, Abdulla passed away; Even Mountbatten , who would have been an important witness was blown up by the IRA in Ireland.


A Theme

The State of Jammu and Kashmir, as it featured on the 15th August 1947 has an area of 222,880 square kilometers. It is mostly a mountaneous region. Situated as it in the heart of Asia, the State has common frontiers with China on the north and north-east, with Afghanistan of the north-west and with Pakistan and India on the western and southern sides. The State’s border with Pakistan is about 900 kilometers long. A tongue-shaped projection of Afghan territory called Wakhan separates the Jammu and Kashmir States from the Russia. The location of the State confers immense strategic importance on this land.


Kashmir can claim the distinction of being the only region in the subcontinent of India which possesses an uninterrupted series of written records of its history. These chronicles testify to the continued existence, among the population of the Valley, of a genuine historical sense. Kalhana, poet-historian of Kashmir wrote his Rajtarangni 200 years before Chaucer and more than 400 years before Shakespare. It narrates in Sanskrit verse the history of the various dynasties which ruled Kashmir from the earliest period down to the time of the author who began to write this work in 1148 AD.
Kalhana’s work was continued by Jonaraja whose narrative covers the troubled times of the last Hindu dynasties of Kashmir and also the first Muslim rulers to the time of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin, who ascended the throne in 1420 AD.
The legend tells us that the Valley of Kashmir was filled by lake in which lived a horrible amphibious demon which terrorised the whole area until the Hindu god Vishnu came to the rescue of people. Vishnu struck the mountains near the town of Baramulla, with his trident, the rocks cracked open and the lake waters rushed out. The demon was subsequently crushed to death under the Hariparbat hill. The inhabitants of the valley, the legands tell us, were at last able to live in peace.

From explorations done so far, traces of neolithic settlements have been observed at a number of places. Besides, Burzhama about 6 kilometers from Srinagar, has yielded remains of a flourishing neolitic life. The earliest date ascribed to Burzhama is 2400 B.C. The identity of people of this period is still wrapped in speculations. But these neolitic people are, from the archealogical evidences so far worked out, the earliest known inhabitants of Kashmir Valley.
Kalhana’s narrative reveals that the Nagas were the aborigines of the Valley They were tribal people devoted to agriculture. They were worshippers of serpant-dieties. The snake-cult seems to have been established in Valley from a remote people and undoubtedly has been one of the earliest religions of the land. A large number of temples built near some of the famous springs (Nags) of the Valley clearly manifest the popularity of the serpant-dieties in ancient Kashmir. The snake-cult prevalent in the Valley throughout the Hindu rule. Abul Fazl a courtier of the Mughal Emperor Akbar who visited Kashmir at the end of the 16th century records that there were 700 places in the Valley bearing carved images of snakes which the inhabitants worshipped. Even now, names of places like, Nilnag, Verinag, Anantnag and Sernag show traces of ancient Naga beliefs which continue to be venerated to this day.
Entry of the Aryans into the Valley, nearly 3000 years ago. Aryans whi infiltrated into Kashmir from Gilgit and Chitral are identified as Pisacas, the ancestors of the Dard-speaking tribes. Nilmathpuran, thr 7th Century literary product of the Valley testifies that Pisacas followed the Nagas as dwellers of ancient Kashmir. The great majority of present day Kashmiris, consists of the descendants of Dard-speaking people, who have been able to preserve their racial purity to a considerable extent inspite of many foreign incursions and invasions.
According to Kalhana, there ruled in Kashmir, in the earliest times, fifty two kings. The names of only four kings are preserved in the chronicles. The first recorded king of Kashmir is Gonanda-I. He was followed by his son Damodra-I, Yasowati Damodara’s wife and the latter’s son Gonanda-II. Another thirty five kings followed Gonanda-II whose names and deeds, according to Kalhana, perished through the destruction of records. However the famous 19th century Kashmiri Historian Hassan has reconstructed the names and duration of reign of these 35 Kings. The ever-green romance of Heemal and Nagrai is a contribution of Nagas to our literary Culture. They are believed to have lived during the reign of these kings.
The nest lot of Kings recorded by Kalhana are : Lava, Kusa, Khangendra, Surendra, Godhara, Survarna, Janaka and Sacinara.
The first known historical name, to appear in the Rajtarangni is Ashoka, the great Mauriyan King whose empire extended from Hindukush in the west to Bangal in the east and down Mysore in the south. Ashoka built the first city of Srinagar at Pandrethan in 250 BC. Chander Gupta Mauriya, Ashoka’s grandfather has included Kashmir in his Empire. At this juncture, the revolutionery message of the Scythian prince, the great Buddha, was ushered into Kashmir. “All human beings are equal and salvation is equally open to all”. Ashoka sent Majjhantika, a missionary from Varanasi, alongwith 10,000 Buddhist monks to disseminate the democratic and egalitarian message of the Buddhist creed in Kashmir.
In the history of Buddhism, Kashmir has an eminent place. Buddhism continued to flourish and the creed enjoyed popularity in the Valley for nearly 900 years. Ashoka was succeeded by Jaluka. He was a Shaivite and settled many Brahamans, of the Indo-gangetic plain, in Kashmir. Damodara-II, another supporter of Shaivism took over from Jaluka and founded his capital of the Damodhar Udar, which is the site of the present Srinagar airport.
The downfall of Mauryans, after Ashoka’s death, was followed by the domination of Bactrain Greeks in Kashmir. The Bactrain Greeks enjoyed suzerain power over Southern Kashmir for about 200 years and left impress of their role on Kashmir’s architecture. Demetrius was their famous rules in Kashmir.
Next horde of invaders into Kashmir were the Scythians, the Turki nomads, who were pushed out from their homes in Central Asia by the most powerful tribe of Kushans. Kanshika was the greatest among the Kushan Kinds. The Kushan empire, which included Kashmir, extended from Khotan and Kashgar in the north, boders of Persia and Parthia in the west and to Benaras in the east and the Vindhya mountains in the south. The empire lasted for 300 years, with Peshawar as a Capital. Kashika founded the town of Kanispur in the neighbourhood of Baramulla and erected number of monasteries and monuments in Kashmir.
White Huns, originally nomads from Sinkiang, invaded India succesfully towards the end of 5th century A.D.They established their empire in Afghanistan and western India. Mihirakula, a natorious Hun King and a unmitigated savage succeeded in 510 AD and established Sialkot as his capital. He has been described as a scourge of God on earth who killed thousands of peopl without any remorse. His revolting acts of cruelity became so abhorrent that the kings of Maghada and of Central India inflicted a decisive defeat on him. Instead of killing him, the kind victors exiled him, along with his supporters to Kashmir. The local king received him kindly and offered the fugutives a small territory. Mihirkula repaid the kings kindness by treacherously seizing his throne in 528 AD. The deposed was executed. Then issuing from Kashmir, Mihirkula conquered Afghanistan and north-east India. He drowned multitudes of people into the river Indus. He committed suicide in 550 AD.
Lalitadatiya (724-760 AD) was the greatest king of the Karkota dynasty who lifted his country to the pinnacle of fame. When Lalitadatya was marching, he was building and it is for the great temple at Martand that he is remembered the most. The temple was built on the pleateau above the present day town of Mattan, nearly 65 kilometers from Srinagar.
Lalitadatya built his capital on an aluvial plateau at Parihaspora, 25 kilometers north-west of Srinagar, in the vicinity of Shadipore. Lalitadatya is also remembered for his qualities as a chmpion of justice, able administrator, promoter of literary and creative activities and for his patronage of arts.
Junaid, who had succeeded the famous Arab commander Muhammad Bin Qasim, as governor of Sindh, attempted an invasion of Kashmir in 733 AD but was effectively repulsed by Lalitadatya. Lalitadatya’s successors repulsed another Arab invasion from Sindh led by Hisham-al-Taghilibi in 770 AD. It may be mentioned here that a Muslim colony had already developed in the Malchamar area of Alikadal, Srinagar.
The 11th cenury witnessed 17 Turkish invasions, led by Mahmud Ghazni, upon Hindu kingdoms of northern India. Mahmud had included Kashmir in the scheme of his Indian campaigns with a view to punishing Samgramaraja who was related to and an ally of Shahi dynasty of Kabul. No part of India remained unconquered except Kashmir and Mahmud resolved on an expedition to that country.
Mahmud invated Kashmir twice through Poonch in order to penetrate into valley via the Tosamaidan pass. His progress was checked at the Poonch fort and he returned unsuccessful in the first attempt. He invated Kashmir for the second time in 1021 AD. Man and nature conspired against the invader and the heavy snowfall forced Mahmud to finally abandon his Kashmir adventure.

After Raja Dahir of Sindh was defeated by the Arabs, his son Jaisiya took refuge in Kashmir. He was accompained by a Syrian Muslim named Hamim who is said to be the first Muslim who set his feet on the soil of Kashmir. King Vajraditya (754-761 AD) gave Hamim and his co-religionists a colony to settle in. This was called Malchamar. To this day, this colony in the Alikadal area of Srinagar in known by the same name.
Bulbulshah from Turkistan was the first Sufi to enter Kashmir during the reign of Suhadeva (1301-1320). The most important convert made by Bulbulshah was Kind Rinchan who was Bddhist at the time of his accession to the throne in 1320. The royal patronage which Islam secured through Rinchan’s conversion, as many as 10,000 non-muslims embraced the cred of Bulbulshah without any demur. Kashmir thus witnessed a revolution, albeit peaceful and imperceptible, which was further augumented by the arrival of a host of sufis in the reign of Shahmir dynasty.
Rinchan was the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir (1320-1323) under the name of Sadr-ud-Din

.......... and the rulers kept on changing...........